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Ionization Articles


Tests performed by Dr. Friede at Villanova University showed that in swimming pool water containing ammonia (this is a typical swimming pool condition due to perspiration and urine), silver responded much faster than chlorine.  Eighty minutes was required for a virtually complete kill of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa bacteria using chlorine, versus only 20 minutes using silver.  Likewise, silver took only one minute, for a 70 per cent kill compared to 10 minutes for chlorine.


Extensive bactericidal studies conducted at the British Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research, Salisbury England confirm silvers effectiveness against bacteria and viruses and that silver/copper systems will inactivate Legionella pneumophila, among many other organisms.


Legionella pneumophila, (legionnaire’s disease) contaminates water reuse systems such as cooling towers, whirlpool spas, grocery store misters and evaporative condensers.  Dr.Charies P. Gerba, Ph.D. at the University of Arizona found that the silver-copper system with .2 ppm chlorine killed legionella up to 1000 times faster as compared to chlorine alone.


Dr. H. W. Parry-Williams of The Randolph Medical Centre in England found that from tests done by their National Health Service Virology Laboratories that both AIDS and Herpes cannot survive in ionized water.


The Silver Institute, Washington, D.C., issued a report showing that a 20,000 gallon pool in Lincoln, Nebraska, infused with 50 gallons of sewer effluent was purified to a zero level with only 3.2 ppb of silver in the water as the disinfectant.  The Carefree Clearwater system uses over five times this level of bactericidal alloy for even greater sanitizing protection.


NASA found under laboratory tests that silver ions demonstrated a complete kill of Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli bacteria present in initial concentrations of one half million per ml.


Silver/Copper systems are the preferred water treatment wherever high temperature conditions are encountered – in the tropics, on shipboard, in air conditioning cooling towers and of course pool/spa environments.  Under these high temperature conditions, residual chlorine evaporates leaving the system unprotected.  As neither silver nor copper evaporate, continuous bactericidal action is provided even during shutdowns.


Chlorine quickly evaporates on a hot sunny day in two hours leaving the pool/spa water unprotected.  Even with the use of stabilizer, cyanuric acid, chlorine’s life is at best slightly extended.  But there are other factors besides sunlight and temperature that affect chlorines availability to sanitize.  Organic Materials such as rain, sweat and urine cause chlorine to form chloramines which are much slower and ineffective at sanitizing.  Also the chemistry of the water determines what percentage of chlorine is available in its killing form.  With a pH of 7.5, only 50% of the chlorine is in its sanitizing form.  With 25 ppm of cyanurate acid, chlorine behaves as though the pH is at 9 which leaves only 5% of the chlorine in its killing form. Studies by Dr. John R. Anderson at the University of South Dakota demonstrated that the addition of cyanurate acid results in a greater decrease in chlorine’s bactericidal properties than an increase in pH of 7.0 to 9.0.


In the real world, pools/spas are exposed to all kinds of organic contaminants as well as heat, sunlight and bathers absorbing the chlorine/bromine.  In fact, 4 people in a 400 gallon spa absorb the entire sanitizer residual in as little as 15 minutes.  These factors make it difficult to insure a chlorinated pool/spa is a sanitary environment.  Also unreliable results occur when it is left up to manual dosing of the sanitizer.  With the Carefree Clearwater system automatically sanitizing a pool/spa and always maintaining a stable residual, you can be assured of a clean, safe and healthy pool.